Nine Elements

Names of nine elements (Nav Tatva)

1. Element of living beings i.e. Conscious/Soul (Jeeva).

2. Element of inanimate objects i.e. non sentient element (Ajeeva or pudgal).

3. Meritorious (Punya) element.

4. Sin/guilt/wicked element (Paap).

5. Element of inflow of Karmas (Aashrava).

6. Element of Restraining the in flow of Karmas (Sanvara).

7. Element of extinction or separation of Karmas from the soul (Nirjara).

8. Element of Bondage (Bandh).

9. Element of total salvation/emancipation. (Moksha).

Navkar Mahamantra

Navkar Mahamantra
Namo Arihantanam
Namo Siddhanam
Namo Aayariyanam
Namo Uvajjhayanam
Namo Loye-Savva Sahunam
Eso Panch Namukkaro,
Manglanam Cha Savvesim
Padhamam Havai Manglam

Namo Arihantanam – Namaskar to the Arihants (Victors).

Namo Siddhanam – Namaskar to the Siddhas (Liberated Souls).

Namo Aayariyanam –Namaskar to the Aacharyas (Preceptors).

Namo Uvajjhayanam – Namaskar to the Upadhyayas (Spritual Teachers).

Namo Lohe Savva Sahunam – Namaskar to Sarva Sadhus & Sadhvies of the cosmos (all Saints of the world).

Eso – To these, Panch– five fold divinities. Namukkaro– Namaskar (reverence) made.

Savva Pav Panasano– is destroyer of all sins.

Manglanam– highly auspicious.  Cha– This is (or it is). Savvesim– amongst all.

Padhamam– Its reading or recitation. Havai– showers/results in. Manglam – auspicious blessing.

In the Jain tradition, Navkar Mantra occupies highest and most venerable place. In prakrit language, ‘Namaskar’ (bowing/veneration) is called ‘Navkar’ (Namokar). It is also called “Panch-Parmeshti” (Five Supreme Gods/Divinities). One whose heart and mind is always filled with the thoughts of radiant and illuminating Navkar Mantra, no harm can ever visit the life of that man. Navkar Mantra does not consist of physical auspiciousness (Dravya Mangal) but it is a matter of implicit/instinctive / emotional auspiciousness (Bhava Mangal). The implicit and instinctive auspiciousness consists of knowledge (Gyan), vision/faith (Darshan) conduct/character (Charitra) and numerous other forms of auspiciousnesses (blessings).

In the Navkar Mantra there is no personal worship instead it contains the illuminating transparent thoughts of virtue-worship. In this Mantra the highly enlightened souls whose virtues are remembered are of two catagories viz. (1) In the shape of Gods (Devs) and (2) In the shape of Preachers (Gurus). Those who have conquered attachment (Raag) and hatred (Dvesh) and who have destroyed ignorance (Agyana), those attachment-free (Veetraags) who show the path to the worldly-souls to end the cycle of births and deaths and who are possessors of omniscient knowledge are our Arihant Gods (Devs). Those who have destroyed all eight Karmas, who are untainted (Pure) and shapeless as well as bodiless, are our fully-liberated Siddha Gods (Siddha-Devs).

Those who themselves follow five right conducts consisting of knowledge etc. and who further make others to follow religion of right conduct, such sadhus (preacher saints) who are leaders of the religious communion are called Aacharyas.

Those sadhus, who educate the inquisitors (Jigyasus) about the twelve aagams (scriptures) and cleanse them of their false-vision and false beliefs and make the unsteady and unstable souls steadfast in religion are called Upadhyayas.

Those sadhus or sadhvies who follow five great vows (Panch-Mahavratas), vigilances (samities) and restraints (gupties) and who devote themselves in the path of salvation are called Sadhus.

The Namaskar made to these holders of these five ranks from core of the heart, destroys all sins. Amongst all the auspiciousnesses of the world, this Navkar Mantra being the best and supermost mangal, is the first amongst all mangals.


The practice of keeping balance of mind is called Samayik. Not to get attached to favourable things and not to entertain aversion to unfavourable things or to maintain equilibrium between attachment and detachment is called Samayik(Equanimity).

In practical sense, by avoiding the Sãvadya-Yoga (violent activity) and the activity to develop the capacity to conquer passions like rãg and dvesh for at least 48 minutes is called practicing the vow of Sãmãyik.

The main aim of the vow of Sãmãyik is to develop the capacity to maintain peace of mind and poise of heart in varied circumstances like love and hate, backbiting and rumor, reverence and reproach, loss and profit, life and death, foe and friend, etc., etc.

While performing the vow of Sãmãyik the household dress should be removed and unstitched spotless white clothes should be put on. During the time of observance of Sãmãyik, one must engage himself in good thoughts and meditate on, and together with it, one should also study or listen to the scriptures and other books, which are useful in improving one’s life.


Jain religion is a great religion of the universe. Its basis is not material conquest but spiritual conquest. In addition to religious rituals, it is mainly a religion of internal purification of the soul (Atma-Dharm).

It is because of this that our Gods are also those eminent persons who have achieved the highest form of purification of the soul.

Our Gods ‘Jinas’ have conquered passion and hatred and they dwelve in qualities of soul (Atma) like knowledge (Gyan) faith (Darshan) and conduct (Charitra).

‘Jina’ word is made of sanskritelement/substance “Ji” with a suffix “Na”, the meaning of which is ‘Victor’. ‘Jin’ word is a technical word of Jain-Philosophy, which is used to denote Arihant (Victors of self) Tirthankar (Prophets) and Kewali (wholly enlightened).

Who is Jain?

Those who worship the Jin (the Victors and the liberated souls) are called Jains. Those who have conquered Kashãya (passion), Rãg (attachment) and Dvesh (aversion) are called the Jin (the Victors).

The worship of Victors of attachment and aversion implies that one should reduce them in his life. It means that one who engages him-self in an effort to reduce vices like rãg (attachment), dvesh (aversion), krodh (anger), mãn (pride), mãyã (deceit) and lobh (greed) is a Jain.

As Lord Shiva is the god of Shaivas, Lord Buddha is the god of Bauddhas, Vishnu is the god of Vaishnavas, and likewise the most holy devotional god of Jains is ‘Jin’. In otherwords those who worship the Arihants and Siddhs are called Jains.

Adding two intra-syllabic vowels, which are symbols of conduct and thought, on the word ‘Jan’, makes the word ‘Jain’. Thus one who follows right conduct and is endowed with purity of thought is a Jain.

‘Lord Jin’ is an ocean of dayã (mercy) and therefore, one who possess the thoughts of kindness and mercy and, also who is moved by the misery of others is a Jain.

A true Jain will readily and appily accept even death in order to maintain purity and liberty of souls. One who controls and conquers the vices of sensuality of indriyas (sense organs)`and man (mind) and proceeds towards conquering the ãtma (soul) is a Jain.

One who gives prime importance to carefulness and prudence in every field of activity and moves forward to advance the teachings and precepts of the Jina is a Jain.

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